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Located in the driest part of the island (receiving between 350 and 500 mm of rainfall annually), the lake at Tsimanampetsotse National Park was classified as an exceptional habitat for aquatic fowl by the "Ramsar" convention on wetlands of international significance. The dry season produces a unique grouping of grebes and pink flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus and Phoeniconaias minor). Water in the form of dew adds crucially to the local hydrological budget, limiting evapotranspiration. The lake is unique in that it is almost saturated with calcium sulfate, and therefore does not contain any fish. However, several caves in the park host the blind endemic Typhleotris madagascarensis. Birds also include many unique species of couas and vangas. Among the mammals, aside from the ring-tailed lemurs, most noteworthy is Grandidier's Mongoose, Galidictis grandidieri, described in 1986 and known only from Tsimanampetsotsa.

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